Amorphophallus



Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Blume (Images by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary, Vijay Anand Ismavel (Id by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary), Pravin Kawale, Karuna Kanta Das (Id by Surajit Koley, Pascal Bruggeman & Wilbert Hetterscheid), K. Puttaraju (Id by Prashant Awale & Suarjit Koley) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. (Images by Prashant Awale, Alka Khare (Id by Suarjit Koley & Satish Pardeshi), Dinesh Valke (Id by Giby Kuriakose & Pascal Bruggeman) & Shubhada Nikharge (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 


 

Amorphophallus kachinensis Engl. & Gehrm. (Images by Ushaprabha Page (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth (Images by Sourav Mahmud (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid & Pascal Bruggeman) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus mysorensis E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch. (Images by Prasad Dash (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more photos & complete details, click on the links)) 

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Amorphophallus muelleri Blume (Images by Prashant Awale (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo (Images by Ritesh Kumar Choudhary  & Ushaprabha Page (Id by Wilbert Hetterscheid) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Images by Prasad Kumar Dash & Surajit Koley (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson  (Images by Surajit Koley & P. Santhan (Validation by Surajit Koley) (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links))

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Amorphophallus titanum (Becc.) Becc. (from USA) (Images from USA by Vijayasankar Raman & Gurcharan Singh (Inserted by J.M.Garg) (For more images & complete details, click on the links)) 

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Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. (Araceae)

In India, the genus Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. is represented by 3 sections:

Sect. 1. Candarum Engl.
Sect. 2. Conophallus (Schott) Engl.
Sect. 3. Rhaphiophallus (Schott) Engl.


1Leaves bulbiliferous, epiphyllar bulbils produced at junction of petiole with rachises and at axils of branches of rachises; spadix ovoid, or elongate obpyriform, creamcoloured.……… 2
-
Leaves not bulbiliferous.……… 5
2Peduncle short, usually 11-15 cm long; spathe-limb apically fornicate.……… A. bognerianus
-
Peduncle long, usually 38-68 cm long, spathe-limb apically erect, not fornicate.……… 3
3Spathe without a constriction between basal tube and limb, c. 39.5 cm long, with indistinct blotches outside; spadix sessile.……… A. carnosus
-
Spathe with or without a constriction between basal tube and limb, c. 14-25 cm long with distinct blotches outside; spadix stipitate.……… 4
4Petiole and peduncle dark green with light greenish blotches and minute greenish white mottles in between blotches; leaflet-margin green; spathe with distinct constriction between tube and limb.……… A. oncophyllus
-
Petiole and peduncle pinkish green to brownish green with cream to white irregular vertical linear stripes; leaflet-margins light pinkish; spathe without constriction between tube and limb.……… A. bulbifer
5Tuber cylindrical in reproductive phase, small and obconic in vegetative phase; petiole and peduncle turgid and brittle; peduncle 21-31 cm long; spathe 10.6-12.0 cm long, greenish brown to greenish purple with light green mottles and dark purple spots outside; greenish yellow and smooth within, sometimes very light pinkish green tinged with purple spots at base within.……… A. nicolsonianus
-
Tuber subglobose in reproductive and vegetative phases; petiole and peduncle not brittle; peduncle 38-56 cm long; spathe 15-32 cm long, dark brownish or purplish green outside, dark purplish inside with short rounded bumps.……… A. commutatus



1.Spadix without a naked appendix; neuter flowers between female and male zones large, elongate-obovoid, cream-coloured. ……… A. margaritifer
-Spadix with a naked appendix; neuter flowers between female and male zones spherical, rhomboid, rounded, or short, stout-echinate, cream, dark pinkish, purplish, brownish red, or greenish. ……… 2
2Spadix appendix very long, 16-25 cm long, cylindric, tapering to the tip, pendent; female flowers with stigma having 3-5 stout echinate lobes. ……… A. smithsonianus
-Spadix appendix medium-sized, to 7.5-20 cm long or very short (less than 4 cm), cylindric, tapering to the tip, erect; female flowers with stigma without prominent echinate lobes. ……… 3
3Neuter flowers short, stout, subulate and greenish; spadix appendix stalked, very short, c. 2 cm long, with irregularly formed sterile structures (resembling rudimentary male or female flowers); male flowers with long projected connectives (rarely staminodial zone and spadix appendix lacking). ……… A. longiconnectivus
-Neuter flowers rhomboid, obovoid or oblong-gibbous or globose; spadix appendix sessile, barren; male flowers without projecting connectives. ……… 4
4Spathe shorter than spadix appendix. ……… 5
-Spathe longer than spadix appendix. ……… 6
5Neuter flowers oblong-gibbous, pinkish; stigma 2-lobed with irregular small warts at maturity; male flowers sparsely arranged in groups of 2-5; spadix appendix pale brownish yellow. ……… A. sylvaticus
-Neuter flowers rhomboid, slightly convex, whitish or faintly purplish or dark purple; stigma 3-lobed, without irregular small warts at maturity; male flowers arranged loosely (especially at base), not in groups; spadix appendix dirty olive green or dark purple. ……… A. konkanensis
6Spathe differentiated into a basal convolute tube and an upper limb separated by a distinct shallow constriction, tip shortly acuminate; barren naked zone present between pistillate and staminodial zones; spadix appendix cylindric, apex rounded. ……… A. bonaccordensis
-Spathe not differentiated into a tube and limb; naked barren zone between pistillate and staminodial zones absent; spadix appendix cylindric, tapering to tip. ……… 7
7Spathe fully convolute into a tube, limb not differentiated or indistinct; stigma sessile. ……… A. mysorensis
-Spathe basally convolute and tubular at early stage, completely opens throughout and become boat-shaped at maturity; stigma very short-styled.……… A. hohenackeri

List of Indian species in Amorphophallus sect. Conophallus

1. Amorphophallus bognerianus Sivad. & Jaleel
    Distribution: Hitherto known only from the type locality in Arunachal Pradesh.
2. Amorphophallus bulbifer (Sims) Blume
    Synonyms: Arum bulbiferum Roxb.; Pythonium bulbiferum (Sims) Schott; Conophallus bulbifer (Sims) Schott;     C. tuberculiger Schott; Amorphophallus tuberculiger (Schott) Engl.; A. bulbifer var. marmoratus Engl.; A.            bulbifer var. atroviridimaculatus Engl.; A. bulbifer var. tuberculiger (Schott) Engl.
    Distribution: India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. In India it is found in Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Goa,     Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur,            Meghalaya and Tripura.
3. Amorphophallus carnosus Engl.
    Distribution: So far known to occur only in Andaman Islands, India.
4. Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl.
    Synonyms: Conophallus commutatus Schott; Dracontium polyphyllum Graham;
    Pythonium wallichianum Kirt.; Amorphophallus sylvaticus Dalz. & Gibs.
    Distribution: Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Key to the varieties of Amorphophallus commutatus

1Peduncle 8-10 cm long; tubular portion slightly compressed obovoid, inner side slightly purplish and pale yellow towards base, verrucose with unicellular silvery hairs at base; male zone of spadix cylindrical.……… var. anmodensis
-
Peduncle 20-95 cm long; tubular portion slightly obovoid or cylindric, with or without unicellular silvery hairs at base within; male zone of spadix fusiform or obconic.……… 2
2Spathe without constriction between tube and limb; tube cylindric, inner side at base dark purplish brown, verrucose with short unicellular silvery hairs.……… var. commutatus
-
Spathe with constriction between tube and limb; tube slightly compressed obovoid, inner side purplish at top and pale yellowish to light purplish with bluntbumps at base without unicellular silvery hairs.……… var. wayanadensis
4.1 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. anmodensis Sivad. & Jaleel
    Distribution: A narrow endemic known to occur only in Anmod Ghat, Goa in India.
4.2 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. commutatus
    Distribution: Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.
4.3 Amorphophallus commutatus (Schott) Engl. var. wayanadensis Sivad. & Jaleel
    Distribution: So far known only from Kerala.
5. Amorphophallus nicolsonianus Sivad.
    Distribution: So far known to occur only in Kerala state in India.
6. Amorphophallus oncophyllus Prain ex Hook.f.
    Distribution: Endemic to the Andaman and Nicobar islands

List of Indian species in Amorphophallus sect. Rhaphiophallus

1. Amorphophallus bonaccordensis Sivad. & N. Mohanan
    Distribution: So far known only from the type locality (Kerala: Thiruvananthapuram Dist.: Bonaccord on the
    Agasthyamala Hill ranges).
2. Amorphophallus hohenackeri (Schott) Engl. & Gehrm.
    Synonyms: Rhaphiophallus hohenackeri Schott; Hydrosme hohenackeri (Schott) Engl.
    Distribution: Very limited in distribution, known only from Kerala and Karnataka states.
3. Amorphophallus konkanensis Hett., S. R.Yadav & K. S. Patil
    Distribution: Restricted to Goa and Maharashtra states.
4. Amorphophallus longiconnectivus Bogner
    Distribution: So far known to occur only in Piparia, Madhya Pradesh state.
5. Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth
    Synonyms: Arum margaritiferum Roxb.; Plesmonium margaritifer (Roxb.) Schott ("margaritiferum")
    Distribution: Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, West Bengal, Sikkim and Assam.
6. Amorphophallus mysorensis E. Barnes & C. E. C. Fisch.

Key to the varieties of A. mysorensis

1Spathe dull purplish; neuter flowers globose, brownish red; spadix appendix dark purplish, inconspicuously irregularly furrowed at base, smooth above, tip blunt, c. 8.5 cm long.……… var. mysorensis
-Spathe brownish-pale green with vertical prominent veins; neuter
flowers rhomboid-conical with usually purplish apex; spadix appendix pale yellow, with irregular furrows and small protuberances, tip pointed, 3.5-4.0 cm long
……… var. bhandarensis


6.1 Amorphophallus mysorensis E. Barnes & C. E. C. Fisch. var. mysorensis
    Distribution: Known only from the type locality.
6.2 Amorphophallus mysorensis var. bhandarensis (S. R.Yadav, Kahalkar & Bhuskute) Sivadasan & Jaleel
    Synonyms: Amorphophallus bhandarensis S.R. Yadav, Kahalkar & Bhuskute
    Distribution: Known only from the type locality (India, Maharashtra State, Bhandara Dist., Tumsar).
7. Amorphophallus smithsonianus Sivad.
    Distribution: Endemic to Kerala state. Confined to a very small area in the state.
8. Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb.) Kunth
    Synonyms: Arum sylvaticum Roxb.; Brachyspatha sylvatica (Roxb.) Schott; Synantherias sylvatica (Roxb.)            Schott
    Distribution: India (Kerala?, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat) and
    
Sri Lanka.

Source References
:
1. Jaleel, V. Abdul,
M. Sivadasan, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Jacob Thomas & A. A. Alatar. "Revision of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. Sect. Rhaphiophallus (Schott) Engl.(Araceae) in India." Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 18.1 (2011). Accessed at: http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJPT/article/view/7835

2. Jaleel, V. Abdul, M. Sivadasan, Ahmed H. Alfarhan, Jacob Thomas & A. A. Alatar. "A Taxonomic Revision of Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. Sect. Conophallus (Schott) Engl. (Araceae) in India." Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19.2 (2012). Accessed at: http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJPT/article/view/13127
 
Re: added eFI data pages 2 post by 2 authors.
I have added pages for Amorphophallus (2 sections) and ..., in our eFI site.
Thanks a lot, ..., It now appears that efloraofindia is truely in the making.
I have shifted the material to the original pages on Amorphophallus & ...
 
Fwd: Reference : 4 posts by 2 authors.
Would you please give me the reference citation of the following specie. it is urgent.
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl., 
A. longituberosus (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm.,
A. margaritifer Roxb.,
A. napalensis (Wall.) Bogn. & Mayo,
A. paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicholson 
Please check if these help
Attachments (10)

I have attached my paper, please check. I cant figure  regarding the reference  what has  the editor comments. Thanks for those files.
Please help me regarding  this reference. I think distribution is ok 
Now, I understand your problem Sourav, it was Plesmonium (Arum margaritiferum) earlier. Check the attached ref. 
Attachments (7)
But what about the reference and citation cloud be in Reference list 
But what about the 5 reference and citation cloud be in Reference list ?
I am not sure, you should ask someone like Nidhan Sir. Perhaps something like -
or
or another ref

I think now it is ok, See the below 
Amorphophallus longituberosus (Engl.) Engl. & Gehrm
Amorphophallus longituberosus Engl. & Gehrm. - Pflanzenr. (Engler) Arac.-Lasioid. 73 (1911).
Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogn. & Mayo
Amorphophallus napalensis (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo -- Aroideana 8(1): 19 (1985):. (IK)
Amorphophallus  paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicholson
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson -- Taxon 26: 338. 1977 [28 Jun 1977]
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson -- Taxon 26(2/3) 1977 (APNI)
Amorphophallus bulbifer (Roxb.) Bl.
Amorphophallus bulbifer Blume -- Rumphia 1: 148. 1837 [Apr-Jun 1837] (IK)
Amorphophallus  margaritifer Roxb
Amorphophallus margaritifer Kunth --Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 3: 34. 1841 [23-29 May 1841]
..., forwarding it to Nidhan Sir for help ..... ..., may I request you to take a look and give your opinion.
Also attached Sourav's draft.

-Blume - Rumphia 1: 148. 1837 [Apr-Jun 1837]. Amorphophallus bulbifer Engl. & Gehrm.

- Pflanzenr. (Engler) Arac.-Lasioid.73 (1911). Amorphophallus longituberosus Kunth

-Enum. Pl. [Kunth] 3: 34. 1841 [23-29 May 1841]. Amorphophallus margaritifer (Roxb.) Kunth,

-Enum. Pl. 2: 34 (1837). Amorphophallus margaritifer (Wall.) Bogner & Mayo

- Aroideana 8(1): 19 (1985). Amorphophallus napalensis (Dennst.) Nicolson

--Taxon 26: 338. 1977 [28 Jun 1977]. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson

- Taxon 26(2/3) 1977. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius


based on

http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do



Pl. go through Amorphophallus page (‎‎‎Araceae) with images of species in efloraofindia (done by me).

If you find any mis-identification, pl. let us know.

If anybody can send images of other species of this genera (for incorporation in the website), it will be really nice. Also, if anybody is interested to take up the activity of inserting images on efloraofindia pages from efloraofindia posts, pl. let us know.