Haplanthodes tentaculatus var. neilgherryensis

Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) Nees var. neilgherryensis (Wight) J. R. I. Wood, comb. nov. (Basionym: Haplanthus neilgherryensis Wight; Haplanthus tentaculatus (L.) Nees var. neilgherrensis (Wight) C. B. Clarke;  Bremekampia neilgherryensis (Wight) Sreem.; Haplanthodes neilgherryensis (Wight) R. B. Majumdar) as per New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014;
 
Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 25: 76 1971. (basionym: Haplanthus neilgherryensis Wight Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. [Wight] 4: t. 1556. 1850 [May 1850]) as per IPNI; 

As per efi thread:
H. verticillatus has cladodes 2.5cm or longer, stiff, very sharp pointed bifid or rarely trifid ...accidental prick is very painful, stinging. Plant about a meter tall or less, stout. Flowers light to deep shade of violet.
In H. tentaculatus cladodes are up to 1.5cm, soft, hairy, tip inconspicuously bifid, non-prickly.
Three varieties can be recognised by cladodes...

In var. plumosa cladodes are covered in dense soft white hairs, inflorescence which is actually terminal part of stem and branches, looking like plume.
In var. neilgherryensis  terminal spike of cladodes and flowers is densely packed, meaning by, internodes are very small. And of course cladodes not plumose.
Var. tentaculatus  seen in suitable habitat in Surat, is having cladodes sparsely hairy, nodes widely spaced.
Cladodes are pointed upwards in Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar or its two other varieties, while these are pointed either straight or downwards in Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar  


https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/13bb626925822cc5/IMG_9073.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrFoUT5d5titRChBQKtLfIlUZBWMEtOovdvRUMFRSsWYNWiJ9DiBxaweZycNkTZGRqbbzPUtnpp-XaIlcS2P1-R03TsFQ3aGwRo5P8oxOYUHU_U_nN0
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https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/13bb626925822cc5/IMG_9075.jpg?part=0.5&view=1&vt=ANaJVrE68EMJ9-z8-xu61xfJiWF6tMU-SGRAgV-KkIi9a8UFDJnyI10zV-_SDTbP2x_lP08G_DDKdEOzZwS0mth9AFRT2mhXdSflqiZweVx-1TRS-qpScWU
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/13bb626925822cc5/IMG_1874.JPG?part=0.3&view=1&vt=ANaJVrGbJTCtJW3FL1Zy2in0mTx_YUNu-yrI5ojxx8KPzP5bA1mQ9iUZKIbVMGSZ1-_SuZ32z13HK_-1WyVGFiq1RfO_EWRnztKEuynkNMDci2919BFRyW8
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/13bb626925822cc5/IMG_1872.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrG2AsyGD70jZn8aHVZC3agsglJZXTDlA3t9fuQlbKhYW32TdK9E2xNa-Hhm_yklizS_Xersx52AKRSBgv4UZWH2Sr4vlHI6kyUsAk3KKQBdW9_iOmQ
Profusely branched herb seen in Chikmagalur Region, Karnataka.
I had seen flowers in White as well as Blue colours..
Bot. name: Haplanthodes neilgherryensis
Family: Acanthaceae
Date/Time: 27-01-2014 / 02:00PM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb


 
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/d556047a7f11dba1/IMG_9082.jpg?part=0.4&view=1&vt=ANaJVrHxhbz3aP3vPiITJOtfA9-fgt9lBa7z4qF_mnu_s7d8rFD8GmsVfaokFJ82JylfrjoYDoBGkcvgykUQxPzvTYjZFuXnLs0nYRHYDBm_R5fvgrZPPSo
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Acanthaceae Fortnight :: Haplanthodes neilgherryensis - Blue :: Chikmagalur :: PKA-MAR60/60: : 1 post by 1 author. Attachments (4)
Haplanthodes neilgherryensis  (Blue flowers) 
Location: Chikmagalur Region, Karnataka.
Family: Acanthaceae
Date/Time: 27-01-2014 / 02:10PM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb


Haplanthodes neilgherryensis - White- 01032014-PKA-March-05 : 5 posts by 4 authors. Attachments (6).  
Profusely branched herb seen in Chikmagalur Region, karnataka.
I had seen flowers in White as well as Blue colours..
Bot. name: Haplanthodes neilgherryensis
Family: Acanthaceae
Date/Time: 27-01-2014 / 02:00PM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb

Very beautiful ... your tour has been very very fruitful..thanks for sharing your recent collection..
Thanks, ...,
In view of the taxonomic confusion, we have to see whether it's Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar or Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) R.B.Majumdar as pointed out in another thread.
Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar & Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) R.B.Majumdar are accepted names of the species & both are different. This genera is endemic to India.
Thus we have to sort out our plants at Haplanthodes tentaculatus into these two species.


Haplanthodes neilgherryensis - Blue- 01032014-PKA-March-06 : Attachments (4). 5 posts by 3 authors. 
Haplanthodes neilgherryensis (Blue flowers)  
Location: Chikmagalur Region, karnataka.
Family: Acanthaceae
Date/Time: 27-01-2014 / 02:10PM
Habitat: Wild
Plant Habit: Herb

Thanks, ...,
It's taxonomical litrature seems confused to me as below as per Haplanthodes tentaculatus:
Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 25:76. 1971(Syn: (≡) Haplanthus tentaculatus Nees (basionym); Synonyms: Bremkempia tentaculatus (L.) Sreemadhavan in Almeida, Fl. Mah. 4: 22, 2001. Ruellia tentaculata L. Cent. Pl. 2: 22, 1756. Haplanthus tentaculatus (L.) Nees in DC., Prodr. 1: 513, 1847 (p.p.); Cooke, Fl. Pres. Bombay 2: 453, 1958 (Repr.). H. tentaculatus (L.) var. nessiana Sant. in Bot. Mem. Univ. Bombay 2: 52, 1951.);
Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 25:76. 1971(Syn: (≡) Haplanthus tentaculatus Nees (basionym)) as per GRIN.
The Plant List Ver.1.1 (Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar is an unresolved name. This name is unresolved, but some data suggest that it is synonymous with Haplanthus nilgherrensis Wight )
Hope somebody is able to resolve it.
I am considering it as a syn. of Haplanthodes tentaculatus based on discussions so far in efi.
More details in Indian litrature are at Haplanthodes
As per these, Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar & Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) R.B.Majumdar accepted names of the species & both are different. This genera is endemic to India.
Thus we have to sort out our plants at Haplanthodes tentaculatus into these two species.

 
Family: Acanthaceae
Date: 21st March 2015
Place: Aralam WLS, Kerala

Habit: Herb
Habitat: Evergreen forest

Haplanthus nilgherrensis Wight?
Probably Justicia sp
Doesn't Justicia have strongly two lipped corolla, ...?
Do you think this one is misidentified?
Do you still think the plant in this thread is a Justicia
Haplanthus nilgherrensis fits perfectly sir. Maybe the accepted name is in doubt. But the illustration attached to the name Haplanthus nilgherrensis Wight is a match for me. Thank you very much.
Thank you ..., please read, in my earlier reply, Ruellia tentaculata L., in place of R. tentaculata Nees, synonymous with Haplanthus tentaculatus Nees as per FBI.
Attached are pictures of Haplanthodes verticillatus captured at Devgad, Maharashtra in May 2014.
Requested to validate the ID.
I feel it should be Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar as per images herein.
Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar
at Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary on February 19, 2012 
Sorry, it should be Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar as per images herein.

I think more closer to Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) Nees var. neilgherryensis (Wight) J. R. I. Wood rather than Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar (Type variety)
  
https://08511630493324166816.googlegroups.com/attach/2532281cb386bb8d/P1250307.JPG?part=0.2&view=1&vt=ANaJVrH-takDERIsO1TxYgYnwNuTAVR6x79S5vGBIvPA-I_FA63VX_OfrSHtBpRM39ZbTpQAhr6XPXGodK1ghCuseAYpaFQthSNFGqm5HeRLgSpZJym-VNI
 
Wild Plant For ID : Nasik : 070514 : AK-15 :
 4 posts by 3 authors. Attachments (2).
These plants were seen growing below a huge Peltophorum tree.
No flowers when the picture was taken on 4/5/14.
May be Acanthaceae.
Haplanthodes tentaculatus [Acanthaceae].

Images by Neil Soares (Inserted by J.M.Garg)

 
Re: [efloraofindia:31341] Haplanthodes sp? 020410-PKA1 - Part 1 : Attachments (3)
H. plumosa generally flowers from Nov. to March, whereas H.verticillatus [Spiny Bottle Brush] flowers in January. Also H.verticillatus is very spiny and gives a nasty poke if handled.
Sending you some photographs taken at my farm for comparison.
[Will send the photographs of H.veticillatus separately].
Before ... provided us KEY to Haplanthodes in the other thtread I referred this post in the same thread, comparing it with ... post in another thread. At that time I agreed with ... Presently I have slight hesitations. not much to reject the probability.
... uploads clearly shows sepal character, to me it was/is  H. plumosa. In this thread the 2nd pic shows sepals, but it is not clear if those are plumose or not.
Now, ... has identified and uploaded all three, H. verticillatus, H. neilgherryensis and H. plumosa, in different threads.
In the pictures in this thread I see some similarity to another thread where ... himself identified the species as H. neilgherryensis - https://groups.google.com/d/msg/indiantreepix/7eR38HhhDDI/HM0wppVFcMUJ, specially in calyx in rk_for-id_060_3.jpg.
Finally, I think we can reject verticillatus and tentaculatus undoubtedly.
Since cladodes in this set of pics are not glandular hairy we have no other option (as per latest KEY by ...). Neil Sir is always correct.
To me it appears like Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar as per images herein.
But I am not too sure.
Pl. confirm.


Came across this Haplanthodes sp. at Jaigad fort near Ganapatipule. Could this be Haplanthodes plumosa?. Kindly validate the ID.

Botanical name:

Haplanthodes sp.

Family:

Acanthaceae

Date/Time- 

29-03-2010 /11:40 AM

Location- Place, Altitude, GPS-  

Jaigad Fort  near Ganapatipule- Ratnagiri

Habitat- Garden/ Urban/ Wild/ Type- 

Wild  

Plant Habit- Tree/ Shrub/ Climber/ Herb-   

Herb

Height/Length-  

30 to 50 cm

Leaves Type/ Shape/ Size- 

Opposite, 3 to 5 cm, Some leaves were acuminate and some were with somewhat rounded apex ,  hairy, leaf base extending down to petiole,

Inflorescence Type/ Size-  

Photograph enclosed

Flowers Size/ Colour/ Calyx/ Bracts- 

Flowers sessile, corolla approx. 8 to 12mm, purple (Photograph enclosed)

Fruits Type/ Shape/ Size Seeds- 

Not known


Haplanthodes species in eFIoraofindia (with details/ keys from published papers/ regional floras/ FRLHT/ FOI/ efloras/ books etc., where ever available)
Does anybody have access to http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3417/2013046?

i.e. New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae John R. I. Wood


I asked if any member can access the paper http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3417/2013046. What I come to know is that Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) Nees is further divided in to var. nilgherryensis and var. plumosa, besides type species.First, I do not have literature, be it century old, on South Indian flora. I have never seen one physical species, never before even in images. The first time I saw/noticed it in Anurag Ji's thread.
Second, it appears to me that various uploads of Haplanthodes, in eFI, are very confusing.
Third, internet doesn't feature any photograph of related species other than those of ..., ... and one or two of others.
Fourth, I do not even know how to differentiate H. verticillatus from H. tentaculatus.
... threw some light -
... has both white & blue colour H. nilgherryensis.
So, it is quite impossible for me to decipher the id of this species. More so, because except the flowering spikes no detail on sepals, sizes of corolla and calyx etc are available.
If this belongs to H. tantaculatus group it is unlikely to be var. plumosa, because of the following herbarium -
Herb. of Ruellia tentaculata - http://linnean-online.org/6882/
var. nilgherrensis -

I believe I may have a resolving idea to put forth but first I would like to know if:
1) Haplanthus verticillaris Nees = Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar
2) Haplanthus neilgherryensis Wight = Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar?


and also, as a continuation of 2) =Haplanthus tentaculatus group?
Yes for both of your questions, I think ...
q2 = I used the term "H. tentaculatus group", for the type species as well as var. nilgherrensis and var. plumosa.
Haplanthodes is synonymous with Haplanthus and also with Berekampia in our cases.
Based on Gamble and Flora of Hassan District (attached), Biodiversity in India and JCB:

CHARACTER

Haplanthus verticillaris Nees

Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar

Haplanthus neilgherryensis Wight

Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar

(this column can include the varieties coming under Haplanthodes tentaculatus- Haplanthus tentaculatus group)

INFLORESCENCE

?

TERMINAL

CLADODE

.75-1.25 INCH

ENDING IN 2 SPINOUS TEETH

VILLOUS AND GLANDULAR

.5 INCH

ENDING IN 2 OR MORE TEETH

VILLOUS (NOT GLANDULAR)

CAPSULE

.4 INCH

GLABROUS

.2 INCH

PUBESCENT

SEEDS

6-16

?


In the above cases, whether we:
1) consider the varieties under Haplanthodes tentaculatus (L.) Nees or,
2) think of them as coming under a Haplanthus tentaculatus group;
-the clear difference between Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar and the other species (singular/plural) is- cladodes densely pubescent AND glandular hairy in Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar while the other is ONLY densely pubescent.
If this is agreeable, then may be we finally have a definite idea of what is and isn't Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar based on the cladode being glandular hairy?
Please correct me if I have gone wrong anywhere.
Attachments (3)

Well, ..., I missed the glandular cladode of H. verticillaris. And also fruit size was unknown to me. Attached here the FBI entries. I stressed on calyx character which was not visible in attached pictures, couldn't make out length of cladode in various threads.
Thank you very much for those differentiating characters.

Sorry, here is the FBI.
Attachments (1)
Thank you sir.
I still do not know what to make of the difference between the var. under Haplanthodes tentaculata.
I do not know. Since we do not have other source we will have to depend on FBI. I copy a few words -
Type species : cladodes in fruits glabrous or pubescent, not ciliate; calyx pubescent, scarcely ciliate; corolla less than 1/2 inch, white (blue, lilac - Pullaiah)
var. Plumosa : calyx densely hispid-hairy subplumose
var. nilgherrensis (neolgherryensis) : you have lit.
Your species had capsule slightly curved (check KEW herb K000885689), while after checking plumosa herb. at KEW site it appears to me plumosa capsules are a bit shorter and straight.
I think if these details can not be ascertain we need to go to var. plumosa, but leave it at H. tentaculatus only. This does not apply to neilgherryensis 
I copy here the KEY, based on various lit, you have provided -

CHARACTER

Haplanthus verticillaris Nees

Haplanthodes verticillatus (Roxb.) R.B.Majumdar

Haplanthus neilgherryensis Wight

Haplanthodes nilgherrensis (Wight) R.B.Majumdar

(this column can include the varieties coming underHaplanthodes tentaculatus- Haplanthus tentaculatusgroup)

INFLORESCENCE

?

TERMINAL

CLADODE

.75-1.25 INCH

ENDING IN 2 SPINOUS TEETH

VILLOUS AND GLANDULAR

.5 INCH

ENDING IN 2 OR MORE TEETH

VILLOUS (NOT GLANDULAR)

CAPSULE

.4 INCH

GLABROUS

.2 INCH

PUBESCENT

SEEDS

6-16

?

Please check the thread. To me cladodes seem to be gladular, yet number of teeth is two in some & three in others. What do you think?
Well sir, in one Flora that I saw, it said cladodes in H. verticillatus generally 2 toothed, rarely 3. I cannot find it right now. Will attach when I do.
If Haplanthus verticillaris Nees can have 3 teeth sometimes then number of teeth won't be a KEY to id species. Attached here what Wight recorded about cladode teeth in H. nilgherrensis. Please note what Wight referred to "bract" may be he meant cladode.
After going through all uploads of Haplanthus/Haplanthodes I think -
  • length cladode is vital (ref. FBI and "note" in http://linnean-online.org/6882/)
  • I am not sure if presence/absence of glandular hair can be a KEY
  • In H. neilgherryensis flowers in pseudo-whorls taking a form of terminal spike; cladodes and sepals with white hairs (ref. FBI)
  • In var. plumosa pseudo-whorls are relatively wide spaced; sepals are hairy subplumose
  • In H. tentacularis cladodes are smaller than H. verticillaris and not ciliate (ref. FBI and Linnean site)
However, I think I have found H. t. var. plumosa! Here it is - efi thread. Check the two photographs in highest resolution, you will see plumose sepals clearly. Besides, each pseudo-whorl in that plant gives rise to sub-branches which do again form flowering pseudowhorl of cladodes (... pointed out this character in a thread). Please also compare those two pics with another upload(s) by ... - Note the darker pattern in corolla lobes in both the thread
Attachments (1)

Thanks sir. One question- are the pseudowhorls forming further branches not seen ANY of the other threads on the group?
Our concern is with only two species of FBI, ..., Haplanthus verticillaris and H. tentaculatus. The later includes var. nilgherrensis and var. plumosa.
Since I have no field experience on this particular genus I depend on ... experience - of H. neilgherryensis - efi thread
I have collected info from various threads, examined online herbarium, read old lit. and cooked my own recipe. I do not claim my dish is healthy and nutritious!
btw, Calyx of H. verticillaris is 1 line (1 line = 2.1 mm). corolla 6 line long (note the calyx to corolla ratio); calyx glabrous or nearly so (ref. http://www.herbier-mpu.org/zoomify/zoomify.php?fichier=MPU018249).
I have a request sir.
Could you please summarize our entire discussion so as to be referred to in the future when another post of Haplanthodes sp. comes up? This would be quite helpful for me as well.

following is the synopsis (based on very limited resource we have discussed and pasted links) -
cladode length :-
verticillaris (verticillatus ) = 19 mm to 30 mm
tentaculatus (incl. var.) = 06 mm to 20 mm
glandular hairs on cladodes :
verticillaris (verticillatus ) = present
tentaculatus (incl. var.) = absent (in all var.?)
calyx :
verticillaris (verticillatus ) = 2 mm long, glabrous or pubescent
tentaculatus = 
  • (around 4 to 5 mm long, pubescent or scarcely ciliate in var. tentaculatus
  • long (? should be more or less equal to above) and pilose in neilgherryensis (note : spike is congested than var. tentaculatus)
  • should be equal length to above and plumose in var. plumosa
(please note KEW has herb. featuring intermediate form of var. tentaculatus and var. neilgherryensis
colour of corolla :-
uncertain to me in all species and var.
Capsule size also uncertain (ref. JCB & Pullaiah); number of seeds not known to me; seed of tentaculatus is smaller than verticillaris (ref. FBI)
Thank you very much sir- for the discussion and the summary!
Good evening sir. While going through the various flora in my college taxonomy lab, I found this in the Flora of Nasik District (P. Lakshminarasimhan and B.D Sharma). All four species have been keyed out
Attachments (3)
Thanks ... for the KEY to four species. But, does it help us to identify the species we/I have discussed so far in the following three threads? -
  1. https://groups.google.com/d/msg/indiantreepix/q8x3X5TrbrY/9LAisyYhIHwJ (this very thread)
  2. https://groups.google.com/d/msg/indiantreepix/D5V4vxlW5nc/5q0B7fF9oQ0J
  3. https://groups.google.com/d/msg/indiantreepix/By2tCca-aOs/niDaDdPIZU8J
Would you please identify the above threads again?
No sir, I am afraid without a clear view of the capsules, I wouldn't know where to start.
But in this thread, would you say that the capsule is pubescent or glabrous?
No Sir ..., I am unable to tell you if the capsules in your thread are pubescent or not!
That is why I think the KEY from your college taxonomy club doesn't help me much in these cases!
Not only that, according to the KEY of that book H. neilgherryensis should have glandular hairy cladodes. I am not sure if those cladodes in your plant were glandular or not. Perhaps a few glandular hairs are there in DSC_0739.jpg (below the flower) and in DSC_0743.jpg (bottom of the pic).
In fact, this prolonged and intermittent discussion along with so many KEY in various sources makes it more and more complicated.
Yet, based on distribution,your species is not plumosa; based on hair on cladodes your species is not tentaculatus; based on this thread your species is not  verticillatus.
Thank you sir. As a final note, I would make sure to shoot with a scale next time so that atleast a few doubts arising as a result of no scale measurements can be avoided!
I feel it should be Haplanthodes tentaculatus (Nees) Majumdar as per images herein.
But I am not too sure.
Pl. confirm.   



References:

New Names and Combinations in Indian Acanthaceae by John R. I. Wood- Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 23(3):385-395. 2014;

IPNI The Plant List Ver.1.1 (Unresolved)  Biodiversity in India, Volume 2 edited by T. Pullaiah (2006)  Endemic genera of Angiosperms in India: A Review by Sheeba J. Irwin* and D. Narasimhan Rheedea Vol. 21(1) 87-105 2011
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