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Discussion about Instructional Design October 26



Saettler, chapter 12: “Development of Instructional Design” as an introduction, and other readings as required (see below). Then, address ONE of the following:

1. Students in the ITDE program receive a solid dose of ID, but usually not until their second year. So, because instructional design is vital to the field of instructional technology (it is, in fact, the central technology of the field), let's take an initial look at models of instructional design and consider their application to distance education. Although there are hundreds of models of instructional design (or instructional development), a much smaller number are in common use. To narrow things down a bit, let's identify five models in two categories.

Category I: System Orientation

  • Dick & Carey Model. The leading model in the field of instructional technology, and the model used in the ITDE instructional design and development courses. Generally behaviorist in its orientation.
  •  Smith & Ragan Model. Popular in part because of its cognitive science perspective.
  • Interservices Procedures for Instructional Systems Development (IPISD) Model. Designed by (but not limited to use by) the military services.

Category II: Classroom Orientation

  • ASSURE Model, by Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino. Used for the systematic planning for the effective classroom use of instructional media and technology. The authors' textbook is used in the instructional media course.
  • Kemp, Morrison, & Ross Model. Emphasizes curriculum planning. As Gustafson and Branch (1997) have noted, it “places greater emphasis on both formative and summative evaluation as ongoing processes, and places all activities within the context of goals, priorities, and constraints.”

Select one of these models and address the following: What are its major elements? What are its theoretical or philosophical foundations? How (and by whom) is it most commonly used? What are its strengths? What are its weaknesses? How would you apply the model in your instructional setting?

To answer the above questions, you will need to investigate sources beyond this semester’s textbooks. The Web is a wonderful (and often quick) source of information. For other helpful resources please see under Discussion 7 in "EDD8008 Discussion Questions" in "Course Content."


Here is a place to find some comparisons

http://www.slideshare.net/rocam98/6321-id-kemp-vs-assure





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I selected the ASSURE model for Classroom 

What are its major elements? 
There are six elements of ASSURE
analyze learner; 
state objectives; 
select methods, media, and materials;
utilize media and materials; 
require learner participation; and 
evaluate and revise


What are its theoretical or philosophical foundations? 
According to a website maintained by the Academy of Teaching Excellence at the Metropolitan State College of Denver (2002), the philosophical foundations of ASSURE are the different learning styles theory (Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory) and constructivist theory.  

How (and by whom) is it most commonly used? 
ASSURE is used especially well when combining different types of media and when the teaching moves away from the lecture mode  (Academy of Teaching Excellence).

What are its strengths? 
First, there are only six elements and they are fairly sequential. (See discussion below about ASSURE when I discuss the Summerville model).
Second, the ASSURE model can be used to focus on and adapt to the needs of individual students.


What are its weaknesses? 
As Summerville points out, the layer of mandates is left out.  



How would you apply the model in your instructional setting?
I like putting the words of ASSURE on the wall so that students can follow along and help with showing "what's next" in the lesson.  Some students might even participate in finding the materials for the next module of the unit.   Seeking student participation will be fairly easy with a model that has an easy to grasp name like ASSURE.


To answer the above questions, you will need to investigate sources beyond this semester’s textbooks. The Web is a wonderful (and often quick) source of information. For other helpful resources please see under Discussion 7 in "EDD8008 Discussion Questions" in "Course Content."

ADDITONAL READING:

Summerville, J., & Reid-Griffin, A. (2008).Technology Integration and Instructional Design. TechTrends, 52(5). 45-51.

Link: http://vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com.ezproxylocal.library.nova.edu/hww/jumpstart.jhtml?recid=0bc05f7a67b1790e5912177bf56e509a807214e88588c3ddc7d7ad988da15e3dc488bb835ff5eed1&fmt=PSummerville, J., et. al., Technology Integration and Instructional Design. TechTrends v. 52 no. 5 (September 2008) p. 45-51

ADDITIONAL QUESTION:

How can Summerville and Reid-Griffin's Integrated Model of instructional design help you in your own environment? Do you think this is an effective model? Why?


How can the Summervile Integrated model of ID help me?
Sommerville looked at ASSURE:  
analyze learner; 
state objectives; 
select methods, media, and materials;
utilize media and materials; 
require learner participation; and 
evaluate and revise


However, the ASSURE model falls short, according to the authors, in the areas of "skills that were flexible and encompassed the principles of educational research and practice."  The ASSURE model also "failed to support our practice of teaching [teachers] to develop instruction that ... adheres to the requirements of the state and NET  standards"


Summerville had used Kemp's model  which the authors believed "did not address how knowledge is transferred among the tiers."   The authors wanted a model that would help teachers "effectively incorporate technology in planning their instructional tasks."


Summerville described the Integrated model as follows:

a)  Begin with Learner Analysis, Instructional Strategies and Task Analysis

b)  Then move to Media (which includes both Design and Selection), Content Analysis, Government Mandates 
and Lesson Planning. 

c)  Next comes Assessment and Evaluation 

d)  Finally there is "the Transfer of knowledge."


Summerville notes that "One can begin with Government Mandates and revisit them at any time. 
... Each of the tiers ...should be visited and somewhat completed in a sequential order."   By following the cycle in the Summerville model, eventually knowledge is transferred.  


So for my work, the Summerville model would help me meet the need for including state and NET standards.     Summerville adds that layer of standards that I often forget in my instruction planning.  The layers of review are also helpful.    The model is like a checklist, both for the teacher and the students.


Is it effective?
Perhaps for a sequential person that likes a long checklist.   I prefer a quick 1-2-3 main points.   I prefer models that conform to the Dennis Littky model of instructional design (1.  Find out the student's interests.  2.  Encourage student to explore those interests.  3.  post a series of questions to guide the exploration.  4.  Keep referring back to those questions as the student gets deeper into the project.   5.  Encourage intrinsic rewards.)   

From Saettler's text, the "Cognitive Theory of Inquiry Teaching" (p. 350) is my preferred method:
1. identify the teacher's goals.
2.  describe the methods and procedures for getting to the goals.
3.  "a control structure specifies selection and sequencing strategies" and "decides which goals to pursue when."
I interpret this control structure in part as "ask the students to define their areas of interest" and then those interests participate in the control of the course.

The Summerville model might also be effective because it is a TEACHING MODEL.   I like this point because I could see how I can show the diagram to students and let them follow along and predict what is going to come next.


References

Academy of TeachingExcellence. (2002).  ASSURE model.  RetritevedOctober 25, 2011, from Metropolitan State College of Denver Web site:  http://www.mscd.edu/~act2/courseconstruct/assure.html






One of the useful discussions was a need to highlight the steps in the Dick and Carey method -- which is used in the creation of ITDE's ID.


Dick & Carey Model. The leading model in the field of instructional technology, and the model used in the ITDE instructional design and development courses. Generally behaviorist in its orientation.



The assumption is that we can witness transfer of knowledge if students are behaving a certain way.   (Trust me, this does not always happen....)

I believe this model makes it possible to evaluate a teacher and the teacher's methods.  "See, all of the students who passed when through stages 1 to 9.  those who failed to produce the good or adequate result did not pass through all nine stages."   I guess that is a way of standardization of the course.   


So I guess I should not be surprised that there are if-then rewards built into this leading model of instructional design.



Thanks for listening..


 



This diagram and description was found on this website
http://www.umich.edu/~ed626/Dick_Carey/dc.html

Stage 1. Instructional Goals

    * Instructional Goal: Desirable state of affairs by instruction
    * Needs Analysis : Analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs or a personal perception of needs.

Stage 2. Instructional Analysis

    * Purpose : To determine the skills involved in reaching a goal
    * Task Analysis (procedural analysis) : about the product of which would be a list of steps and the skills used at each step in the procedure
    * Information-Processing Analysis : about the mental operations used by a person who has learned a complex skills
    * Learning-Task Analysis : about the objectives of instruction that involve intellectual skills

Stage 3. Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics

    * Purpose : To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the learning task
    * Intellectual skills
    * Abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation
    * Traits of personality

Stage 4. Performance Objectives

    * Purpose : To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives
    * Functions : Determining whether the instruction related to its goals.
               Focusing the lesson planning upon appropriate conditions of learning
               Guiding the development of measures of learner performance
               Assisting learners in their study efforts.

Stage 5. Criterion-Referenced Test Items

    *To diagnose an individual possessions of the necessary prerequisites for learning new skills
    *To check the results of student learning during the process of a lesson
    *To provide document of students progress for parents or administrators
    *Useful in evaluating the instructional system itself (Formative/ Summative evaluation)
    *Early determination of performance measures before development of lesson plan and instructional materials

Stage 6. Instructional Strategy

    * Purpose : To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the objectives
    *The best lesson design : Demonstrating knowledge about the learners, tasks reflected in the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies

        e.g. Choice of delivering system.
               Teacher-led, Group-paced vs. Learner-centered, Learner-paced

Stage 7. Instructional Meterials

    * Purpose : To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction.
    * Use of existing materials when it is possible
    * Need for development of new materials, otherwise
    * Role of teacher : It depends on the choice of delivery system

Stage 8. Formative Evaluation

    * Purpose : To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials
    * To revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students
    * One on One : One evaluator sitting with one learner to interview
    * Small Group
    * Field Trial

Stage 9. Summative Evaluation

    * Purpose : To study the effectiveness of system as a whole
    * Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage
    * Small scale/ Large Scale
    * Short period/ Long period

References

* Dick, W. & Cary, L. (1990), The Systematic Design of Instruction, Third Edition, Harper Collins
* Briggs, L. J., Gustafson, K. L. & Tellman, M. H., Eds. (1991), Instructional Design: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Educational Technology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
* Edmonds, G. S., Branch, R. C., & Mukherjee, P. (1994), A Conceptual Framework for Comparing Instructional Design Models, Educational Research and Technology, 42(2), pp. 55-72.
* Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J. & Wagner, W. W. (1992). Principles of Instructional Design (4th ed.), Holt, Reihhart, and Winston Inc.



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