My current research explores how to modify maladaptive memories. We may readily think of ways in which memories are helpful. However, some memories can be traumatic. Consolidation is the process of going from short-term to long-term memory. Reconsolidation is the reactivation of a long-term memory. We know that mild shock under anesthesia can cause patients to forget memories, so shock during reconsolidation can allow for site specific memory modification. Our lab is interested in understanding the neural mechanisms underlying electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We have been using ECT for many years but have a very limited understanding of how it works. This research will lead to better therapy for patients with PTSD, substance abuse, and depression.