Published & Forthcoming Articles

"Teacher Professional Development around the World: The Gap between Evidence and Practice" (with Popova, Breeding, and Arancibia), World Bank Research Observer, 2021. Open-access published version. (on Twitter)

"The Impact of Early Childhood Interventions on Mothers" (with Jakiela and Knauer), Science, 2021. Published version. Open-access accepted version. (on Twitter)

"What We Learn about Girls’ Education from Interventions that Do Not Focus on Girls" (with Fei Yuan), World Bank Economic Review, 2021. Open-access published version. (on Twitter)

"Gender Gaps in Education: The Long View" (with Pamela Jakiela and Maryam Akmal), IZA Journal of Development and Migration, January 2021. Open-access published version. Summary blog post.

"Education in Africa: What Are We Learning?" (with Amina Mendez Acosta), Journal of African Economies, January 2021. Open-access published version. Summary blog post. (on Twitter)

"Analysis of clinical knowledge, absenteeism, and availability of resources for maternal and child health: A cross-sectional quality of care study in 10 African countries" (with Di Giorgio, Lindelow, Nguyen, Svensson, Wane, and Welander Tärneberg), BMJ Global Health, December 2020. Open-access published version. Summary blog post. ()

"Lifting bans on pregnant girls in school" (with Amina Mendez Acosta), The Lancet, 2020. [Online appendix]

"Practical Lessons for Phone-Based Assessments of Learning" (with Angrist et al.), BMJ Global Health, 2020.

"School Uniforms, Short-Run Participation, and Long-Run Outcomes: Evidence from Kenya" (with Mũthoni Ngatia), The World Bank Economic Review, 2020. [Policy blog post; research blog post; op-ed in Kenya's Daily Nation newspaper]

"Cash Transfers Increase Trust in Local Government" (with Brian Holtemeyer and Katrina Kosec), World Development, 2019.

"Bias in Patient Satisfaction Surveys: A Threat to Measuring Health Care Quality" (with Felipe Dunsch, Mario Macis, and Qiao Wang), BMJ Global Health, 2018.

"Health Care Quality and Information Failure: Evidence from Nigeria" (with Anna Welander Tärneberg), Health Economics, 2017.

"Cash Transfers and Health: Evidence from Tanzania" (with Brian Holtemeyer and Katrina Kosec), World Bank Economic Review, 2017. Working paper; summary blog post.

Cash Transfers and Temptation Goods” (with Anna Popova), Economic Development and Cultural Change, 65(2), 2017. Working paper; summary blog post; Radically brief policy brief

Media coverage: [Working paper], New York Times, Deseret News, New York Times, Huffington Post, Slate; [After publication of article] Humanosphere, Quartz, attn:, Yahoo! Finance, Business Insider, Mic, Forbes, The Young Turks, Washington Post, Christian Science Monitor

What Really Works to Improve Learning in Developing Countries? An Analysis of Divergent Findings in Systematic Reviews” (with Anna Popova), World Bank Research Observer 2016. Working Paper; Blog post 1; Blog post 2

Adapted into Spanish: "¿Qué funciona para mejorar el aprendizaje en países en desarrollo?" (with Anna Popova), Reformas y Políticas Educativas, September-December 2016.

"Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Development: Accounting for Local Costs and Noisy Impacts" (with Anna Popova), World Development, January 2016. Working paper; Blog post.

"Health-care Worker Mortality and the Legacy of the Ebola Epidemic" (with Markus Goldstein & Anna Popova), The Lancet Global Health, 3(8), e430-e440, August 2015. Blog post in English | French; Supplementary appendix; Working paper (with more detailed methodology)

Media coverage: Wall Street Journal, The Guardian (UK), Voice of America, Reuters, Yahoo! News, Medical Daily, UN Dispatch, ABS-CBN News, Geo.TV News, Financial Express, Express Tribune, GMA News Online, Middle East North Africa Financial Network, Leadership (Nigeria), Medical Xpress,

"West African Ebola crisis and orphans" (with Anna Popova), The Lancet, 22 February 2015. Blog post; Working paper (with more detailed methodology)

"Learning from Exemplary Practices in International Disaster Management: A Fresh Avenue to Inform U.S. Policy?" (with Melinda Moore, Horacio Trujillo, Brooke Stearns, and Ricardo Basurto-Davila), Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 6(1), 2009.

"Orphans and Schooling in Africa: A Longitudinal Analysis" (with Ted Miguel), Demography 44(1), February 2007, pp 35-57.

Working Papers

"How to recruit teachers for hard-to-staff schools: A systematic review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries" (with Mendez Acosta), unpublished working paper. Current version available upon request. September 2021.

"Property tax compliance in Tanzania: Can nudges help?" (with Collin, Di Maro, and Manang), Brookings Global Working Paper 161, September 2021.

"Girls' Education at Scale" (with Mendez Acosta and Yuan), Co-Impact Research Working Paper, 2021. Updated version available upon request.

"Teaching and Testing by Phone in a Pandemic" (with Crawfurd, Hares, and Sandefur), CGD Working Paper 591, August 2021. Summary blog post. (on Twitter)

"Economic and Social Development along the Urban-Rural Continuum: New Opportunities to Inform Policy" (with Cattaneo, Adukia, Brown, Christiaensen, Evans, Haakenstad, McMenomy, Partridge, Vaz, and Weiss), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 9756, August 2021.

"Teachers Pay in Africa: Evidence from 15 Countries" (with Fei Yuan and Deon Filmer), CGD Working Paper 538, updated June 2021. Summary blog post.

"Should Governments and Donors Prioritize Investments in Foundational Literacy and Numeracy?" (with Hares), CGD Working Paper 579, May 2021.

"Building State Capacity: What is the impact of development projects?" (with Di Maro, Khemani, and Scot), unpublished working paper, April 2021.

"Making girls safe means tackling violence both in and out of schools: A cross-country analysis of physical and sexual violence" (with Hares, Holland, and Mendez Acosta), unpublished working paper, April 2021. Submitted. Current version available upon request.

"Management, Supervision, and Health Care: A Field Experiment" (with Felipe Dunsch, Ezinne Eze-Ajoku, and Mario Macis), CGD Working Paper 578 and NBER Working Paper 23749, updated April 2021. Revision submitted at Journal of Economics & Management Strategy.

"Towards Clearer Ethics in Randomized Controlled Trials in Development Social Science," CGD Working Paper 565, February 2021. Summary blog post. Revision requested at Journal of Development Effectiveness.

"Do cash transfers reduce trust and informal transfers within communities?" (with Katrina Kosec), IFPRI Discussion Paper 01994, December 2020.

"The Education Impacts of Cash Transfers for Children with Multiple Indicators of Vulnerability" (with Charles Gale and Katrina Kosec), CGD Working Paper 563, December 2020. Summary blog post.

"How to Improve Education Outcomes Most Efficiently? A Comparison of 150 Interventions Using the New Learning-Adjusted Years of Schooling Metric" (with Angrist, Filmer, Glennerster, Rogers, and Sabarwal), CGD Working Paper 558 and World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 9450. October 2020.

"How Big Are Effect Sizes in International Education Studies?" (with Fei Yuan), CGD Working Paper 545, August 2020. Summary blog post.

"Equivalent Years of Schooling: A Metric to Communicate Learning Gains in Concrete Terms" (with Fei Yuan), Policy Research Working Paper 8752, February 2019.

"Extending the School Day in Latin America and the Caribbean," (with Peter Holland & Pablo Alfaro), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7309, June 2015 [Updated October 2016]. Blog post

"Training Teachers on the Job: What works and How to Measure It" (with Anna Popova and Violeta Arancibia), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7834, September 2016.

Parental Human Capital and Effective School Management: Evidence from The Gambia,” (with Moussa Blimpo & Nathalie Lahire), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7238, April 2015. Blog post

The Permanent Input Hypothesis: The Case of Textbooks and (No) Student Learning in Sierra Leone” (with Shwetlena Sabarwal and Anastasia Marshak), World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7021, September 2014. Blog post

Books, Briefs & Reports

Successful Teachers, Successful Students: Recruiting and Supporting Society’s Most Crucial Profession,” (with Tara Béteille; second edition), World Bank, 2021. (First edition, 2019.)

"Education Technology for Effective Teachers," CGD Note, February 2021.

"The State of Ceará in Brazil is a Role Model for Reducing Learning Poverty" (with Loureiro, Cruz, and Laudharte), June 2020. (in Portuguese)

"The Skills Balancing Act in Sub-Saharan Africa : Investing in Skills for Productivity, Inclusivity, and Adaptability," (with Omar Arias, Indhira Santos, and a number of chapter contributors), World Bank, 2019. French edition.

Future Drivers of Growth in Rwanda: Innovation, Integration, Agglomeration, and Competition,” (with many co-authors), 2018.

"Commentary: Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid" (with Fei Yuan), in Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, measurement, and policy in low-income countries, UNESCO, 2018.

"Impact of free availability of public childcare on labour supply and child

development in Brazil" (with Attanasio et al), 3ie Impact Evaluation report 58, 2017.

"Skills for Africa Today and Africa Tomorrow" (with Omar Arias and Indhira Santos), in Africa's Pulse, no. 16, October 2017.

World Development Report 2018: LEARNING to Realize Education's Promise, (with many co-authors), World Bank, 2017.

"Why Do Students Learn So Little? Seeking Answers Inside Haiti's Classrooms," (with many co-authors), World Bank, May 2015. [French version]

"The Economic Impact of Ebola on Sub-Saharan Africa: Updated Estimates for 2015," (with many co-authors), World Bank, January 2015.

"The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic: Short and Medium Term Estimates for West Africa," (with many co-authors), World Bank, November 2014 (formal printing of October report). Press release

"The Economic Impact of the 2014 Ebola Epidemic: Short and Medium Term Estimates for Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone," (with many co-contributors), World Bank, September 2014.

Media coverage: L.A. Times (interview with me)

Community Based Conditional Cash Transfers in Tanzania: Results from a Randomized Trial” (with Stephanie Hausladen, Katrina Kosec, and Natasha Reese), World Bank, Washington DC, 2014.

Media coverage: The Guardian (Tanzania)

Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil’s Most Important Generation” (with Katrina Kosec), World Bank, Washington DC, 2012.

Achieving World Class Education in Brazil: The Next Agenda (with Barbara Bruns and Javier Luque), World Bank, Washington DC, 2011.

Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model” (with Somi Seong, Steven W. Popper, Charles A. Goldman, and Clifford A. Grammich), RAND Report MG-711-KRF, RAND, 2008.

Book Chapters

“Recruiting Better Teachers” (with Barbara Bruns, Javier Luque, Guillermo Toral, and Soledad de Gregorio), in Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank, 2015.

“Grooming Great Teachers” (with Barbara Bruns, Javier Luque, Guillermo Toral, Noah Yarrow, and Soledad de Gregorio), in Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean, World Bank, 2015.

Permanent Working Papers

Prioritizing Educational Investments in Children in the Developing World” (with Arkadipta Ghosh), RAND Labor & Population Program Working Paper WR-578, 2008.

“The Cost of Providing Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa and Uganda” (with Julia Aledort, Brooke Stearns, Penninah Iutung, Glenn Wagner, and Gery Ryan), working paper.

The Spillover Impacts of Africa’s Orphan Crisis,” working paper, December 2005.

“Population Change and Human Development in Latin America,” with David Bloom, David Canning, Bryan Graham, Patrick Lynch, and Erin Murphy. Background paper prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank in connection with Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, 1999-2000 Report, 2000.