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### Unit Conversions

 Work Unit Conversions1 MET = 3.5 ml/kg/min1 MET = 1 kcal/kg/hrL/min to ml/kg/min = divide L/min by the subject's body weight in kg, then multiply x 1000 ml/kg/min to L/min = multiply ml/kg/min by the subject's body weight in kg. then divide by 1000  L/min to kcal/min = multiply L/min x 5kcal/min to L/min = divide kcal/min / 5ml/kg/min to METS = divide ml/kg/min by 3.5METS to ml/kg/min = multiply METS x 3.5 METS to Kcal/min = multiply METS x 3.5 x body weight in kg then divide by 200 Speed Conversions1 mph = 26.8 m/min1 mph = 1.62 km/hr1 km/hr = 0.62 mphWeight Conversions1 kg = 2.2046 lbs1 kg = 9.8 N1 kg = 1000gDistance Conversionsfeet to meters, multiply feet x 0.3048meters to feet, multiply meters x 3.281inches to meters, multiply inches x 0.0254meters to inches, multiply meters x 39.37miles to meters, multiply miles x 1609meters to miles, divide meters / 1609 Pace Conversions  (To find pace in min : sec per mile)A. Find the reciprocal of mph ( 1 / mph )B. Multiply the reciprocal of mph x 60C. The whole number portion is the minute part of min : sec per mileD. Multiply the decimal portion of this number x 60E. The decimal portion x 60 is the seconds part of min : sec per mileExample: Find the pace of a runner who is running at 7.8 mph.A. 1 / 7.8 = 0.1282B. 0.1282 x 60 = 7.692C. The minutes part of pace is 7D. 0.692 x 60 = 42 (rounded)E. The pace is 7:42 or 7 min 42 sec per mile.Power Conversions To find power in kgm/min, divide work in kgm / time in minutesTo find power in watts, divide work in joules / time in secondskgm/min to watts = multiply kgm/min x 0.164 watts to kgm/min = multiply watts x 6.12 kgm/min to kcal/min = multiply kgm/min x 0.0023 kcal/min to kgm/min = multiply kcal/min x 427 kcal/min to watts = multiply kcal/min x 69.8watts to kcal/min = multiply watts x 0.014 Energy Conversions 1kcal is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius; 540 kcal evaporates 1 kg of waterkcal to kgm, multiply kcal x 427kgm to kcal, divide kgm / 427kcal to joules, multiply kcal x 4190joules to kcal, divide joules / 4190ACSM Metabolic Equations Walking (1.9 to 3.7 mph) VO2 (ml/kg/min) = (0.1 x speed) + (1.8 x speed x grade) + 3.5 Speed is calculated in m/min. Grade = fraction of the elevation / distance The numbers 0.1 and 1.8 are constants that refer to the following: 0.1 = oxygen cost per meter of moving each kilogram (kg) of body weight while walking (horizontally) 1.8 = oxygen cost per meter of moving total body mass against gravity (vertically) Running (greater than 5.0 mph - or 3.0 mph or greater if the subject is jogging) VO2 = (0.2 x speed) + (0.9 x speed x grade) + 3.5 Speed is calculated in m/min. Grade = fraction of the elevation / distance The numbers 0.2 and 0.9 are constants that refer to the following: 0.2 = oxygen cost per meter of moving each kg of body weight while running (horizontally) 0.9 = oxygen cost per meter of moving total body mass against gravity (vertically) Cycling or Leg Ergometry (for power outputs of 300–1,200 kgm/min, or 50-200 watts, and speeds of 50–60 rpm VO2 = [1.8 (work rate) ÷ body mass in kg] + 7 *You may need to convert watts to kgm/min (1 watt = 6 kgm/min). The numbers 1.8 and 7 are constants that refer to the following: 1.8 = oxygen cost of producing 1 kgm/min of power output 7 = oxygen cost of unloaded cycling plus resting oxygen consumption Stepping (for stepping rates of 12–30 steps/min and for step heights ranging from 1.6 to 15.7 inches) VO2 = [0.2 (step rate)] + [1.33 x 1.8 (height in meters x step rate)] + 3.5 Since the height that needs to be plugged into the equation is in meters, you must convert inches to meters (1 inch = 0.0254 meters). The numbers 0.2, 1.8 and 1.33 are constants that refer to the following: 0.2 = oxygen cost of moving horizontally during stepping 1.8 = oxygen cost of moving vertically during stepping 1.33 = correction factor for positive and negative (up and down) component of steppingGlossaryj - jouleskcal - kilocalorieskcal/min - kilocalories per minutekg - kilogramskgm - kilogram-meterskgm/min - kilogram-meters per minuteL - litersL/min - liters per minutem/min - meters per minuteMET - metabolic equivalent (3.5 ml/kg/min)ml/kg/min - milliliters per kilogram per minutemph - miles per hourVO2 - volume of oxygen or rate of oxygen consumptionw - watts