Heroes of Tirhut

Heroes of Tirhut-Chain Choudhary,Ounga  Choudhary and Nubee Meah                           

The early establishments of Europeans in Bihar were in form of indigo plantations and factories,particularly in Tirhut.

Those were against the interests of local peasant and Jamindars. Some brave people of Bihar had opposed their unworthy settlements through various means. These Struggles though isolated are very much important keeping in mind the socio-political scenario of that time.                                                                                                           

The Kontai house- the bungalow of the first  indigo factory at Kanti built in 1778, A photo of 1897    

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A book named HISTORY OF BEHAR INDIGO FACTORIES Written by MINDEN WILSON was published by THE CALCUTTA GENERAL PRINTING COMPANY in 1905, which was based on archives of the indigo factories of Bihar and then official correspondence .According to this book,Mr. Grand was sent to Tirhoot in 1782 as Collector of Revenue, where he built three indigo factories. In these factories,he was conducting the manufacture of indigo on the manner of Europeans and was evidently  making money. The mokarrarie patta of these factories were any how taken from the local jamindars and raiyats.

 He was opposed by the local raiyats and when Lord Cornwallis arrived in Calcutta in 1786 as the first Governor-General of East India Company,Mr.Bathurst was appointed Collector of Tirhoot . on the 29th August 1787, by him and Mr. Grand was ordered to go as Judge of Patna in 1788. He was shortly afterward ordered to give up or dispose of his indigo factories in Tirhoot.

 Thereafter, on the basis of his conduct as a Judge at Patna, he was removed from the service and was send to Calcutta .

Chain Chowdhary, a zamindar of tirhut had opposed the misconducts of the very early indigo planters in dewani adalat.There was a letter addressed to James Gentil, Indigo Planterof Attur Factory, from J. Neave, Judge of Tirhoo,dated 4th August 1793, telling him to prosecute Chain Chowdhary in the Dewani Adawlut and to  file a  suit to sign a penalty bond as prescribed by the 38th article of Revenue Regulation.

Ounga Chowdry and some raiyats of Kunouli petitioned against Mr. Hunter, proprietor of Daudpur Factory, for hoeing up land and oppression for the cultivation of indigo. There was a remark that Mr. Hunter seemed  to be a very troublesome man. The Judge wrote him referring him to a certain section which he could see daily from 9 a.m. to 4 P.M., Sunday excepted, at' the Judge's Court and Mr. Hunter after some days, replied, asking, " In what Room?”

 The British settler and interlopers of that time had established private forces, who had regular struggles with Indian raiyats and Jamindars .Their misconducts were often challenged and in some cases favorable decrees were followed by.

On 2nd November 1793 Mr. Neave, Judge of Tirhoot, ordered  a Frenchman named Dombal, who was at Saraiya Factory, to at once go to Calcutta, giving due notice of date of departure when an officer of the Court would accompany him and place him in the hands of the Military Secretary.

 On the 17th February 1793 Mr. Neave wrote to James Arnold of Dholi Factory, acknowledging his letter enclosing license to live in the country:—

Whenever the Brahmin you have beaten shall complain to the Criminal Court you will hear from me officially on the subject. In the meantime I caution you in the most serious manner against all ill usage of natives.There was also a letter to one Thomas Parke, a trader at Singhia, to quit the district within a month and go  to Calcutta.

The brave Nubbee Meah  of Hursinghpur

 The  Bungalow of Hursinghpur, was  being built by M. H. Gale who was the manager of Pandaul Indigo concern. Nubbee Meah  of Hursinghpur disputed the right to build and there was every chance of a serious row. So the Collector of Darbhanga went out specially to intervene. He unfortunately had a long beard and so had Mr.Gale, and Nubbee Meah  , taking the Collector for the planter, attacked on  him and badly wounded him. It ended in the Nubbee Meah eventually getting the worst of it, and where once lived the happy Nubbee family ,was demolished and the Hursingpore bungalow was erected.

 The brave Nubbee Meah was sentenced heavily for taking the law into his own hands.