Traditional Transport in Bihar


Saggar-The light Country -cart

THE LIGHT COUNTRY CART is called saggar.This cart is rougher, lighter, and cheaper than the chhakra,its wheel is the same as in the chhakra.The body of the saggar is not arched, as in the chhakra. It is simply a flat triangle of wood, principally bamboo.
   A photograph of 1905

THE LARGE COMPLETE COUNTRY CART is called chhakra or chaghus gari; its  wheel is  called chak, felloe is called mangar, which  is made of six segments of  wood, called each as putthi ,the nave  is called  nah
The iron hoop round the nave to prevent it from splitting is called band or ban. Inside the nave is sometimes tightly fastened an iron tubeto receive the axle. This is called the muhanri.The wheel is tired, the tire iscalled  haal.The linch-pin is called dhurkilli, the peg inside the wheel is  pharkilli, .In  chhakra, there is generally only one linch-pin on the inside end of the axle.At the rear of the cart, just in front of the chak, is tied a thick bough of wood. This is called pachhua. It prevents goods falling out behind. Over the  pjrhiya, and of equal length to the  tekani, runs a bamboo called the tij, supported by two stout pillars about a foot high, each standing on one end of the  pirhiya. These pillars are called the khuntri .

When the bullocks are unyoked, the front of thecart is supported at the sagun, to  prevent it falling forward, by the sirpaya .The prop to prevent the cart falling back is  ularua.The body of the bullock cart used as carriage- vehicle is like a  chhakra. Over it is placed , is called  saungi. The frame of the seat on these are ornamental brass knobs, called phuliya. The top of the saungi  is  chhatri or  thathri, and the stuffed cover to keep off the sun is gadda or gadela.  The net forming the bottom of the seat is  saungi, and the leather guard of the body inside the wheels is  dhamaka.
THE COUNTRY BOATS 
are of various kinds.  The larger kinds of boats are ulank ,which has a long narrow bow overhanging the water in front,  melhni ,which has a broad bluff bow,  pateli or katra , on which the boards forming the sides overlap and are not joined edge to edge,  kachchha ,which is shaped like a square shallow box, without proper bow or stern, and is steered with two
rudders.  and the  saranga or  sarinna ,which has a round bottom for shallow . The smaller  kinds are palwar or ektha ,a  dug-out. The latter is also called  bangra and  kholnaiya, with both ends rising like a gondola well out of the water, and which cannot sink. Another similar boat is called the dengi machhua. Gharnal is a temporary raft made of water-jars ( ghara) and bamboos tied
together.



The Marriage Litter

LITTER- khatoli or doli is now a days rarely used in marriages, an ornamented litter specially used in marriages was called chandol or tartarwan. The word tartarwan is said to be a corruption of the Persian word, takht rawan meaning the moving throne.
                          
 
The litter itself was  a khatoli, and was a kind of small bed with a bottom made of rough twine . The sides and ends of the bed are pati.  At each end two pieces of split bamboo run np from each comer, meeting about 3 feet above the bed, and thus forming a triangle. These bamboos were called sipawa and are fastened to the comers of the bed.This makes a  litter without the curtains. When a woman traveled in it, the whole was enclosed in a set of curtains like a bell-mouthed bag, called  ohar. A superior kind of litter,  used by richer women, was  meyana. It had a domed roof, called thatri, supported on eight pillars (four at each side), called  dantaThe  bardari, or  larahdari , was the corresponding litter used by wealthy men.

THE EKKA OR TANGA
is the most popular pony carriage in Bihar.

The axle of tanga is called dhuri, which is strengthened inside by a short metal tube, samma . There is one of these inside each wheel, and they act as a kind of washer. There is only one axle ( dhuri), on which both wheels run.Outside each wheel are a pair of  tulawa .Round the ends of the  tekani. the  aak, and the axle, forming a triangle outside the wheel, is tightly tied a rope called the jant, and just above the lowest angle of this triangle {i.e., just above the point of axle) , is tied to it a short stick serving as a footstep, called  salai or  salaiya.

The  tulawa are fastened to the  ak and the tekani by iron hooks, called
ankuri The props of the body are  danta or  khunta. The top of the awning is chhatri, and the roof of it is tarak. The awning at the sides is ghata top, which is fastened by iron rings, kholi. The ropes which support the awning poles are  hathwansa..


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