Traditional Agriculture in Bihar

THE PLOUGH AND PLOUGHING- The ordinary country plough, is generally known as har. Sometimes the Hindi form of the word,  hal, is used. In Gaya the word langal is also used.
 Khinauri is used for an old or worn plough. In north Bihar ,old or worn plough is also called the
nthi, or  thentha and in Ara  area, it is called     khutahara. A new plough is called a  nautha in west part of Bihar      while it is named as naughar in Champaran, and lautha  over              North-East Bihar and  Tirhut division.                                                             
The various parts of the common plough are called as; the beam  is  haris, the handle or stilt is called   parihath  in central and northern Bihar,while in other regions it is called lagan or laganna,the knob at the end of the body near the handle is ;in Patna  chandwa, in Gaya chandi or  chanduli in  north and cental bihar  muth or muthiya. In  Bhagalpur area,  makri is  the name of a  piece used for mending it when broken. The notches on the beam , by which the share is raised or lowered is called the kherha, or kharha, the sole , in which the share is fixed is called  tor ornasa. ,the wedge fixing the beam to the body is  patta ,  a second wedge is sometimes added, which is known as chaili  or  chelkhi ,the peg  passing through the shaft at the end, to prevent the body coming off is  barain ,the iron clamp  for preventing the share falling off is karuar and the yoke.is called the palo or juath.The ropes  which go round the bullock`s necks is called joti or phansa.The share is Faar or somewhere in north Bihar is also known as  lohdma...



When a man wishes to plough deep, he harnesses the yoke higher up the beam  . This is called  as augar or agar. Light ploughing is done in the converse way, and is known as  sev .


IRRIGATION-
Irrigation is called  patwan or  patauni. The flooding of a field preparatory to planting rice is called  lewa. A man irrigating has given the names,panchhanna or panbhorwah

 
There are three main kinds of irrigation :From canals.—A canal is generally called a pain or  paini,  From wells and From tanks or ponds.which is called a pokhra. A small pond is  talai. A  reservoir of which the water is higher than the level of the surrounding country and is kept in by embankments is called  a  khajana. The embankment round all these tanks and ponds is called a bhinda. The post erected in the centre of a tank is jat or  lathFlush irrigation, when the water is at a higher level than the field and the cultivator has only to cut the bank of the water channel and allow the water to flow into the field, which is  is called  apta or agarpat. 
Irrigation by lift, when the water has to be raised from a lower level, is called ukhewa.
The masonry cylinder of a well is khanjir.The wooden base of the cylinder is made of jamun wood, and is called jamwat or jamkath.A well so large that two buckets can work it is calleda duhatthi or dujat.


THE LEVER USED IN RAISING WATER is
dhenkul or Iattha. The pot (whether earthen or of iron) is kunr, a smaller iron vessel used for drawing water by hand, and not by means of a lever, is dol, kathnahi is a wooden bucket for drawing water from a well. The string which fastens the stick placed across the mouth of the bucket to the pot is kaneti or chorkhilli. The rope of the lift is barha, the lever-beam is weighted with a counterpoise of clods of earth etc., fixed to the end furthest from the well,which is called leda.
The beds formed in a field for irrigation are called kiyari; ganrari are smaller sized beds for the same purpose. These are made with an implement with a handle and board fixed at the bottom, like a rake without teeth. This is worked by a single man, much as a rake is used is called  called pharuhi and the wooden shovel used in distributing the water in a field is called  hattha or aabha.

THE SCARECROW
is generally called dhuh, dhuha or  dhua. A scarecrow pulled by a string and hung on a tree is  dhabdhabwa or akasi . Cultivators also usually put an old black earthen pot,
the pot on which soot is laid with marks of lime, in a field to keep off the evil eye, which is called  totma ,.

THE SICKLE OR REAPING-HOOK
are either toothed or with a sharp cutting edge;
with a sharp cutting edge is called hansua. A kind with a heavier blade is called paghariya or  sangiya, with teeth is called  dantula or kainchiya  Hansuli is a small sickle without teeth, principally used by ladies for cutting spinach  and by toddy-sellers for cutting palm-trees. The pahsul is a fixed upright sickle, which is kept in position by the foot resting on the wooden base in which it is fixed, and is used for cutting spinach and other vegetables. K
atta is an instrument used for cutting bamboos.

THE RAKE USED ON THE THRESHING-FLOOR
is akhaina,which
is a kind of hooked stick used for pushing the sheaves under the bullocks' feet while the grain is being trodden out. When it has five prongs, it is called  pachkha.

GRANARIES
are of four kinds ; a structure of straw or brushwood in the open air  is  bakhar  or kothi, jabra is a small granary,2nd type is underground pits for storing grain, are  called  khad or  khata,3rd type of granaries are inside the house—dehri, which is a small circular closet for holding grain, and is generally made of wattle and mud.
The kothila  is
generally made of sun-baked mud, and is larger, the 4th  type is  space surrounded by mats for holding grain ,called thek and a granary made of straw only is khonchri. The support of the granary is  gora  or baisak . A heap of grain is dheri , while a smaller heap is called  kuddi.


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