Science - NGSS


K-12 NGSS Standards

How to Read the Standards Poster

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Science & Engineering Practices

What is a Science and Engineering Practice (SEP)?

*as defined by the NRC Framework

The practices describe behaviors that scientists engage in as they investigate and build models and theories about the natural world and the key set of engineering practices that engineers use as they design and build models and systems. The NRC uses the term practices instead of a term like “skills” to emphasize that engaging in scientific investigation requires not only skill but also knowledge that is specific to each practice. Part of the NRC’s intent is to better explain and extend what is meant by “inquiry” in science and the range of cognitive, social, and physical practices that it requires.

Although engineering design is similar to scientific inquiry, there are significant differences. For example, scientific inquiry involves the formulation of a question that can be answered through investigation, while engineering design involves the formulation of a problem that can be solved through design. Strengthening the engineering aspects of the Next Generation Science Standards will clarify for students the relevance of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (the four STEM fields) to everyday life.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

What is a Disciplinary Core Idea (DCI)?

*as defined by the NRC Framework

Disciplinary core ideas have the power to focus K–12 science curriculum, instruction and assessments on the most important aspects of science. To be considered core, the ideas should meet at least two of the following criteria and ideally all four:

CrossCutting Concepts

What is a Crosscutting Concept (CCC)?

*as defined by the NRC Framework

Crosscutting concepts have application across all domains of science. As such, they are a way of linking the different domains of science. They include: Patterns, similarity, and diversity; Cause and effect; Scale, proportion and quantity; Systems and system models; Energy and matter; Structure and function; Stability and change. The Framework emphasizes that these concepts need to be made explicit for students because they provide an organizational schema for interrelating knowledge from various science fields into a coherent and scientifically-based view of the world.

  • Have broad importance across multiple sciences or engineering disciplines or be a key organizing concept of a single discipline;
  • Provide a key tool for understanding or investigating more complex ideas and solving problems;
  • Relate to the interests and life experiences of students or be connected to societal or personal concerns that require scientific or technological knowledge;
  • Be teachable and learnable over multiple grades at increasing levels of depth and sophistication.

Disciplinary ideas are arranged into four domains:

  • Physical Science
  • Life Science
  • Earth and Space Science
  • Engineering, Technology and applications of Science

Crosscutting concepts have value because they provide

students with connections and intellectual tools that are

related across the differing areas of disciplinary content

and can enrich their application of practices and their

understanding of core ideas. — Framework p. 233


NGSS Framework Appendix G Crosscutting Concepts

Crosscutting Concepts K-12 Progression

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